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Table of Contents. Chapter 1: Overview of Cabling. Short History of Communications. What is Premises Cabling? What Are Cabling Standards? Review Questions.

Chapter 2: Cabling Jargon. Structured Cabling Terms. Cable Testing. Chapter 3: Networks. Computer Networks. Fiber Optics In Structured Cabling. Fiber or Copper - or Wireless? Chapter 4: Copper Cabling. Unshielded Twisted Pair.

Other Twisted Pair Cable Types. UTP Cable Termination. Testing UTP Cabling. Chapter 5: Fiber Optic Cabling. Quick Fiber Primer. Which Fiber? Fiber Optic Cable Choice. Termination: Connectors and Splices. Fiber Optic Testing. Chapter 6: Wireless. Wireless In Structured Cabling Systems. Wireless Standards. All Wireless Really Wireless? Wireless Design. Chapter 7: Design Cabling Design Criteria. Other Design Considerations.

Appendix B: Terminology. Appendix D: Definitions of Terms. The Fiber Optic Association, Inc. ISBN As technology has driven the rate of technical change ever faster, it has become a challenge to provide printed reference books that are not hopelessly out of date. Instead, many readers turn to the Internet for more up-to-date technical information. The information on the Internet, however, is often biased, even that on supposedly non-commercial websites, and anonymous sources must be assumed to be untrustworthy or have a commercial agenda.

Most cabling networks already depend on fiber optics for high speed backbones and new fiber optic cabling systems for premises applications are being introduced. We also do not obsess over standards, covering them only to ensure the technician knows their proper use. For those interested in premises cabling, copper, fiber or connections to wireless access points, the Premises Cabling Systems section of the online reference guide provides a wealth of usable information.

With this book, we address the needs for those who prefer printed books or who must have them to meet academic requirements. Thus this edition meets the needs of those who prefer printed references without burdening them with trying to determine what material is already obsolete. For those who want this printed version but also want access to the web for color graphics, automatic self-testing or links to even more technical information, we have provided links on the FOA Online Reference Guide website to the appropriate sections covered in this book.

If you have feedback on the book, feel free to email comments or questions to the FOA at:. A note of appreciation The material has been produced and reviewed by a number of contributors whom we wish to thank for their work in contributing, creating and reviewing the materials included here: Michael Hayes, editing and design, Reviewers: Bob Ballard, Duane Clayton, Tom Collins, Gary Giguere, Bill Graham, Karen Hayes, Ron Leger, Jim Underwood and many, many more.

These guidelines are strictly the opinion of the FOA and the reader is expected to use them as a basis for learning, reference and creating their own documentation, project specifications, etc. Those working with fiber optics in the classroom, laboratory or field should follow all safety rules carefully. The FOA assumes no liability for the use of any of this material.

Objectives: From this chapter you should learn:. How communications and cabling developed. The role of cabling in communications. How standards develop and are used for interoperability.

Differences between standards and codes. A Short History of Communications. The history of modern telecommunications spans slightly more than years, starting with the development of the telegraph in the early 19th century. Telegraphy gave man the means to transmit a series of impulses that represented letters.

When these letters were received and decoded, they provided a way to convey messages over long distances. Naturally, the next step was to consider whether sound might also somehow be electrically transmitted. In reality, many people contributed to telephone improvements including Thomas Alva Edison, Lars Ericsson and David Edward Hughes whose invention of the microphone became universally used in telephones.

It is amazing how quickly the use of the telephone spread. The first switchboard, an experiment, was installed in Boston in Just four years later, there were 54, telephones in the United States!

The first connections from Boston to New York began in Wireless communications developed from the work of Nikola Tesla and Guglielmo Marconi. In the first decade of the 20th century, Dr.

So for the first half of the twentieth century, communications spread worldwide using the same basic technologies. By the s, integrated circuit technology and the microprocessor began to influence telecommunications and computers. Experiments began in digital voice transmission and fiber optics.

Computer networks like Ethernet and the predecessor of the Internet were developed. The s brought wide scale use of digital telecom, computer networks and fiber optic long distance networks. The s also brought the breakup of the Bell system in the US and the spread of minicomputer and PC networks.

The s to today are the era of LANs and the Internet. Although not every proposed usage of cabling has been successful, today every PC is connected to a LAN or the Internet or both.

Internet access over cell phones has added another twist to the market. But all telecommunications and the Internet depend on cabling. Typically, communications work on a worldwide fiber optic backbone connected into private networks that utilize a combination of copper, fiber and wireless connections.

By premises cabling, we mean the cabling used inside buildings and in restricted geographic areas like campuses or among clustered business facilities that follows industry standards. Mostly we are referring to structured cabling systems defined by industry standards that are used for LANs, telephone systems and even other indoor or campus systems adapted to structured cabling like CCTV, security or building management.

However the large-scale adoption of UTP cabling standards has gained the attention of many other applications. Some of these systems have been redesigned for UTP cable while others require adapters, such as baluns, which convert coax to balanced UTP transmission. Most of these applications will also use fiber optics where the length or bandwidth exceeds the limitations of UTP copper cable. Widespread usage of any technology depends on the existence of acceptable standards for components and systems.

These standards are written as minimum specifications for components and systems that will ensure interoperability of equipment from various manufacturers. During the s, telecommunications and computer technology changed rapidly. Phone signals became digital, fiber proliferated. Minicomputers and personal computers became connected over local area networks LANs. To support this rapid expansion of digital communications, new cables and cabling architecture were needed.

TIA is a US standard. At the time, cabling was used mainly for telephones to wiring closets and PBXes Private Branch Exchanges or local phone switches , but it established a baseline for cable length requirements for commercial customers that was used in creating TIA Much of the terminology from the telephone industry also carried over into the development of structured cabling standards, although some of that terminology is being replaced by less telephone-specific terminology.

Cabling standards are not developed for end users or installers, but for component and equipment manufacturers. The manufacturers develop products around the standards specifications and are responsible for telling installers and end users how to use these components. The essence of standards for structured cabling is they provide a minimum performance level for components and cabling systems that manufacturers use to develop products for the marketplace. The competition in the cabling marketplace requires companies to make cables that are better than those standards in order to differentiate their products from competitors.

So using those standards, manufacturers make cables that will be compatible with other cables meeting the same standards but offer advantages in performance, installation or cost. Codes or Standards? Many people think this standard is a mandatory, even legal, document like the US National Electric Code see below.

In fact, is a voluntary interoperability standard for communications cabling, developed by a number of manufacturers of cabling components and networking equipment.


The FOA Reference Guide to Prem - Hayes, Jim.pdf

Table of Contents. Chapter 1: Overview of Cabling. Short History of Communications. What is Premises Cabling? What Are Cabling Standards? Review Questions. Chapter 2: Cabling Jargon.


The FOA Reference Guide to Premises Cabling

Premises cabling covers copper and fiber cabling as well as wireless networks used for telephones, LANs local area networks , security systems, building management systems, DAS cellular distributed antenna systems and any other applications using cabling or wireless inside buildings or on campuses. The Fiber Optic Association, Inc. As technology has driven the rate of technical change ever faster, it has become a challenge to provide printed reference books that are not hopelessly out of date. Instead, many readers turn to the Internet for more up-to-date technical information.

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