EPITAFIO DE SEIKILOS PDF

The Seikilos epitaph is the oldest surviving complete musical composition, including musical notation, from anywhere in the world. The epitaph has been variously dated, but seems to be either from the 1st or the 2nd century AD. It is a Hellenistic Ionic song in either the Phrygian octave species or Iastian tonos. While older music with notation exists for example the Hurrian songs , all of it is in fragments; the Seikilos epitaph is unique in that it is a complete, though short, composition. The following is the Greek text found on the tombstone in the later polytonic script; the original is in majuscule , [Notes 1] along with a transliteration of the words which are sung to the melody, and a somewhat free English translation thereof; this excludes the musical notation:. While you live, shine have no grief at all life exists only for a short while and Time demands his due.

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The Seikilos epitaph is the oldest surviving complete musical composition, including musical notation, from anywhere in the world. The epitaph has been variously dated, but seems to be either from the 1st or the 2nd century AD. It is a Hellenistic Ionic song in either the Phrygian octave species or Iastian tonos. While older music with notation exists for example the Hurrian songs , all of it is in fragments; the Seikilos epitaph is unique in that it is a complete, though short, composition.

The following is the Greek text found on the tombstone in the later polytonic script; the original is in majuscule , [Notes 1] along with a transliteration of the words which are sung to the melody, and a somewhat free English translation thereof; this excludes the musical notation:. While you live, shine have no grief at all life exists only for a short while and Time demands his due. The last two surviving words on the tombstone itself are with the bracketed characters denoting a partial possible reconstruction of the lacuna or of a possible name abbreviation [4].

Another possible partial reconstruction could be. The tombstone has an inscription on it, which reads in Greek :. A free translation of this reads: "I am a tombstone, an image. Seikilos placed me here as a long-lasting sign of deathless remembrance.

The inscription above each line of the lyrics transcribed here in polytonic script , consists of letters and signs indicating the melody of the song: [8]. Although the transcription of the melody is unproblematic, there is some disagreement about the nature of the melodic material itself. There are no modulations, and the notation is clearly in the diatonic genus, but while it is described by Thomas J.

Winnington-Ingram says "The scale employed is the diatonic octave from e to e in two sharps. This piece is … [in] Phrygic the D mode with its tonic in the same relative position as that of the Doric.

Although the epitaph's melody is "clearly structured around a single octave, … the melody emphasizes the mese by position … rather than the mese by function". The song's pitch centers notes of emphasis according to frequency, duration, and placement are, in Greek notational nomenclature, C and Z, which correspond to G and D if the scale is mapped on the white keys of the piano A and E in the "two sharps" transcription above.

The melody is dominated by fifths and thirds; and although the piece ends on hypate, that is the only occurrence of this note. This instance of hypate probably derives its suitability as a final by virtue of being "the same," through octave equivalency, as nete diezeugmenon, the pitch center Z.

The find has been variously dated, but the first or second century AD is the most probable guess. One authority states that on grounds of paleography the inscription can be "securely dated to the first century C.

The Epitaph was discovered in by Sir W. According to one source the stele was then lost and rediscovered in Smyrna in , at about the end of the Greco-Turkish War of — It remained there until the defeat of the Greeks, having been taken by the Dutch Consul for safe keeping during the war; the Consul's son-in-law later brought it by way of Constantinople and Stockholm to The Hague ; it remained therein until , when it was acquired by the Department of Antiquities of the National Museum of Denmark Nationalmuseet , a museum situated at Copenhagen.

This is where the stele has since been located inventory number: A German scholar Otto Crusius in , shortly after the publication of this inscription, was the first to observe that the music of this song as well as that of the hymns of Mesomedes tends to follow the pitch of the word accents. There are other places also where the initial syllable of a clause starts on a low note in the music.

The meaning of these is still uncertain. According to an ancient source known as the Anonymus Bellermanni , they represent an ' arsis ', which has been taken to mean a kind of ' upbeat ' 'arsis' means 'raising' in Greek ; [23] Armand D'Angour argues, however, that this does not rule out the possibility of a dynamic stress.

The meaning of the stigme has been debated for years by scholars. Is it an ictus mark, does it indicate stress, does it show arsis or thesis, and which part of the foot ought to be called arsis? If the Anonymus Bellermanni source is correct, this implies that whole of the first half of each double-foot bar or measure is the thesis, and the whole of the second half is the arsis.

Stefan Hagel, however, argues that this does not preclude the possibility that within the thesis and arsis there was a further hierarchy of strong and weak notes. A possible alternative way of rhythmizing the Seikilos song, in order to preserve the iambic 'rising', di-dum feel of the rhythm, was recently suggested by Armand D'Angour, with the barlines displaced one quaver to the right, as in the following transcription: [28] [29].

D'Angour adds: "In practice, it is open to listeners to switch their perception of ictus to either manner of execution. When one attempts to sing the piece according to such dynamic accentuation Stefan Hagel, discussing an example in the Anonymus Bellermanni , suggests the possibility of a similar transcription with displaced barlines of a line of music with this same rhythm.

Aristides Quintilianus From an ancient Greek rhythmician's point of view, therefore, in Lynch's opinion the conventional transcription is to be preferred.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Epitaph of Seikilos. Melody sung in an approximation of Koine Greek pronunciation and in modern popular vocal style. MIDI rendition. See also: Ancient Greek accent. Landels , Namespaces Article Talk.

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DEH SE PIACER MI VUOI PDF

Seikilos epitaph

The Seikilos epitaph is the oldest surviving complete musical composition, including musical notation, from anywhere in the world. The epitaph has been variously dated, but seems to be either from the 1st or the 2nd century AD. It is a Hellenistic Ionic song in either the Phrygian octave species or Iastian tonos. While older music with notation exists for example the Hurrian songs , all of it is in fragments; the Seikilos epitaph is unique in that it is a complete, though short, composition.

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EPITAFIO DE SEIKILOS

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