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This methodological approach enables access to sociologically and culturally relevant data about religiousness in contemporary Russian and Serbian societies through linguistic research. Keywords: methodology of linguistic research, theolinguistics, religiousness, associative fields of lexemes. Where is the room for non- hyphenated literature in the Anglophone literary polysystem?
And what are the implications of these tendencies on world literature as it is produced and taught today? Viewed in this context, East European literatures occupy a position that is both privileged and marginalized. Keywords: translation, Anglophone literary sphere, world literature. Many observers of literary translation in the United States regret how little foreign literature is published in English translation. Where is there room for non-hyphenated literature in the Anglophone literary polysystem?
Viewed in this context, East European literatures occupy a position in world literature that is both privileged and marginalized. The presentation will wind up with a quick survey of how and where East European languages are being taught today in North America—since knowledge of the languages is the basis of translation.
Translation Studies scholar Gideon Toury makes the point that translation is initiated by the receiving culture, which seeks information, generic or stylistic innovations, or ways to participate in new literary or cultural movements it locates in the source culture. Now, if you walk through a typical bookstore in the United States or the United Kingdom, the section of literature in translation will be much smaller than the analogous section in any serious bookstore in Belgrade.
I have just checked several bookstores in Belgrade, so this is confirmed. Indeed, in the United States the literature in translation is likely to be intermixed with originally Anglophone works.
Moreover, since the venture AmazonCrossing has been publishing new translations into English; the reach of online vendors creates a huge virtual bookstore with many more options for the reader who seeks literature in translation.
The prestigious Nobel Prize for Literature, for example, cannot be awarded to a writer whose works the judges cannot read. Linguists estimate that about languages are spoken in the world today, though many of these are endangered and have few remaining speakers. Any consideration of this topic must take into account the Cold War, which created a certain obsessive focus on this Other—at least on the Soviet Other, who for citizens of the United States largely obscured the rest of Eastern Europe in a simple dualism of Us and Them.
Put in terms familiar to a U. Many refugees have been settled in areas far from the coasts, and these groups can eventually attract many more members, growing into something like the significant Bosnian community in St. Louis, Missouri. He defects to the U. Native American authors, Sherman Alexie for instance, are ironically often approached in the same way, as if they were immigrants to the dominant culture whose writing will reveal stories of adaptation rather than some kind of Otherness from which the reader undertakes to learn.
Hyphenated writers are teaching American readers about our own immigrant past, stressing an Otherness that is already here and striving to adapt, whether completely or in part. Given that background, who are the best-known writers from Eastern European immigrant cultures in North America? This is a brief and incomplete list.
From Russia, a number of successful authors immigrated to the U. One student signed up for my course on East European Literature in translation because she had read his book, The Question of Bruno—which of course was not a translation. Josip Novakovich note the way he spells his last name professionally has also turned to former Yugoslav topics in his U. Most of these writers came to the US as children, so they are at once truly natives of the old country and young enough to acquire an outstanding command of English and be fully conversant with its idioms and literary fashions.
Of course, this is far from the first generation of immigrants to take to writing in English. One important example is I. Singer, who continued writing in Yiddish even after his English became very proficient.
Following the Second World War, one can imagine why a writer of Yiddish might want to do all he could to advance the language; modern Hebrew in Israel quickly developed a strong secular literature, and Singer was able to use Yiddish previously the secular language in contrast to ritual, religious 9One must note that Nabokov was trilingual almost from birth: his wealthy family had French- and English-speaking governesses.
Nabokov received his undergraduate degree at Cambridge University in England in He may have killed the Russian writer in himself, but he certainly did not start his American writing career in an English as a Second Language class in For many American Jews whose parents originated in Eastern Europe, Yiddish was a language the older generation used to discuss things they did not want the children to hear; now it is the third or fourth generation of descendants who are eagerly learning Yiddish as a foreign language.
She continues to write her poetry in Irish, though most of her readership is Anglophone, partly to keep fellow Irish poets translating her poetry, so they do not forget their Irish, often learned in school rather than at home. So where in all this is there room for translation—the promised topic of this presentation? Stated otherwise: where is there room for non- hyphenated literature, whose Otherness remains in the translation even when the language is transformed, whose Otherness indeed defines the new work as a translation?
Poetry offers one such place, perhaps because writing viable poetry demands more complete command of a language. Brodsky found employment as a professor of Russian literature, not a teacher of creative writing, and he never stopped writing poetry in Russian even as he was writing essays and other prose in a refined and flexible English. Auden and others. Russian poetry was popular in the late 20th century, with new attention to poets from the Silver Age and the Thaw periods.
All of them translate as well and all, to a greater or lesser degree, write in English as well as, or even instead of, Russian. Among other recognition, the novel received a three- page review from Joyce Carol Oates in the prestigious New York Review of Books, though Oates did not once mention the translator, Professor Christina Kramer. Translation as a subject of study offers students a practical way to use a foreign language, and, though literary translation is not the most remunerative kind of translation, it appeals to some students very much.
The popularity of these programs suggests that we will see a new flowering of literary translation, bringing a greater amount of truly foreign literature to Anglophone readers. There is a small but wonderful translation mentoring program in the U. Publishers of translations still tend to favor contemporary or at least recent writers, though some of the most visible translated prose involves new versions of classic Russian novels aimed at classroom use.
And where are students learning the languages of Eastern Europe? The same thing is happening with funding for students to study the languages. Government funding sources have been moving from the State Department to the military.
Several universities with important Slavic and East European language programs in the U. There are significant programs in Slavic languages sometimes including Baltic and other non-Slavic languages such as Romanian and Hungarian at the University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign, Indiana University, the Ohio State University, and the University of Pittsburgh, as well as elite universities on both coasts of the US and Canadian institutions like the University of Toronto.
Canada offers more support for study of Ukrainian, due to the large Ukrainian immigration to Canada in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
This is due partly to local population and partly to the charisma of the teachers. One East European exception is Latvian, which has been maintained among children of immigrants by making them go to Saturday school. Like being compelled to practice a musical instrument, this kind of thing greatly irritates children, who then become when they grow up and realize what they have.
Svojom Pustom zemljom T. Komad Dejvida Rejba napisan je Edip, zaista, ljutito poziva Tiresija da otkrije uzrok kuge i preti krivcu kaznom i progonstvom. Naime, Egist preuzima vlast posle Agamemnovog ubistva i uvodi tiraniju i despotsku vladavinu Fischer-Lichte, Treba naglasiti da je komad nastao Dok sve pomenute drame predstavljaju liminalna stanja protagonista, razlika postoji u vrsti liminalnog iskustva koje se dramatizuje, odnosno u strogom odvajanju estetskog i empirijskog.
U knjizi koju je objavio Novembra Problemi moderne kritike. Beograd: Nolit. Original prvi put objavljen Eliot, T. U Izabrane pesme. Ivan V. Beograd: SKZ. Pristupljeno Original objavljen Fergason, F. Frajnd, prev. Fischer-Lichte, E. History of European Drama and Theatre. London and New York: Routledge. Theatre, Sacrifice, Ritual. Veliki brat. Beograd: KPGT.
Jovanov, S. Beograd: Geopoetika. Sarajevo: Svjetlost. Mueller, H. The Hamletmachine.
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ISBN 13: 9788637906780
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