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Designation: D — Standard Practice for. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

Thin- walled tubes used in piston, plug, or rotary-type samplers should comply with Section 6. This sampling method is not recom-. Other soil samplers may be used for sampling these soil types. Such samplers include driven split barrel samplers and soil coring devices D , D , and D For information on appropriate use of other soil samplers refer to D Subsurface geotechnical explorations should be reported in accordance with practice D This practice discusses some aspects of sample preservation after the sam- pling event.

For information on preservation and transportation process of soil samples, consult Practice D This practice does not address environmental sampling; consult D and D for information on sampling for environmental investi-. The SI values given in parentheses are provided for information purposes only. The tubing tolerances presented in Table 2 are from sources available in North. Use of metric equivalent is acceptable as long as thickness and proportions are similar to those required in this standard.

It is the. N OTE 1—This. Current edition approved August 10, Published December Originally published as D —58T. Last previous edition D — This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment.

Not all aspects of this practice may be applicable in all circumstances. Referenced Documents. D Outside diameter D o :. Wall thickness:. Tube length:. A The three diameters recommended in Table 1 are indicated for purposes of standardization, and are not intended to indicate that sampling tubes of interme- diate or larger diameters are not acceptable. Lengths of tubes shown are illustrative.

Size Outside. Outside diameter, D o. Inside diameter, D i. Wall thickness. A Intermediate or larger diameters should be proportional. Summary of Practice. N OTE 2—The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used.

Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D are generally considered capable of competent and objective sampling. Users of this practice. Reliable results depend on many factors; Practice D provides a means of evaluating some of those factors. Open borehole diameter and the inside. They should have an outside diameter of 2 to 5 in. Tubes shall be clean and free of all surface irregularities including projecting weld seams.

Other diameters may be used but the tube dimensions should be proportional to the tube designs presented here. Generally, the inside clearance ratio used should increase with the increase in plasticity of the soil being sampled, except for sensitive soils or where local experience indicates otherwise. See 3. Severity of damage is a function of time as well as interaction between the sample and the tube.

Thin-walled tubes should have some form of protec- tive coating, unless the soil is to be extruded less than 3 days. The type of coating to be used may vary depending upon the material to be sampled. Galvanized tubes are often used when long term storage is required.

N OTE 3—Most coating materials are not resistant to scratching by soils that contain sands. Consideration should be given for prompt testing of the sample because chemical reactions between the metal and the soil sample con occur with time.

N OTE 3—Tube held with hardened screws or other suitable means. N OTE 4—2-in Sixteen-gage tubes are generally readily available. Metric Equivalent Conversions. The sampler head shall contain a venting area and suitable check valve with the venting area to the outside equal to or greater than the area through the check valve. In some special cases, a check valve may not be required but venting is required to avoid sample compression. Attachment of the head to the tube shall be concentric and coaxial to assure uniform application of force to the tube by the sampler insertion equipment.

If groundwater is encountered, maintain the liquid level in the borehole at or above ground water level during the drilling and sampling operation. Side discharge. Jetting through an open-tube sampler to clean out the borehole to sampling elevation is not permitted. In no case shall a length of advance be greater than the sample-tube length minus an allowance for the sampler head and a minimum of 3-in. N OTE 5—The mass of sample, laboratory handling capabilities, trans- portation problems, and commercial availability of tubes will generally limit maximum practical lengths to those shown in Table 1.

If driving methods are used, the data regarding weight and fall of the hammer and penetration achieved must be shown in the report. Where the soil formation is soft, a delay before withdraw of the sampler typically 5 to 30 minutes may improve sample recovery. Sample Measurement, Sealing and Labeling. Seal the upper end of the tube.

Remove at least 1 in. Use this material for soil description in accordance with Practice D Measure the overall sample length. Seal the lower end of the tube. Alternatively, after measurement, the tube may be sealed without removal of soil from the ends of the tube. Packing materials must be nonabsorbent and must maintain their properties to provide the same degree of sample support with time. Samples are extruded in special hydraulic jacks equipped with properly sized platens to extrude the core in a continuous smooth speed.

In some cases, further extrusion may cause sample disturbance reducing suitability for testing of engineering properties. Bent or damaged tubes should be cut off before extruding. Assure that the markings or labels are adequate to survive transportation and storage. Field Log. This guide is used for logging explorations by drilling and sampling.

Some examples of the information required include;. The American Society for Testing and Materials takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard.

Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM Headquarters.

Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below. Individual reprints single or multiple copies of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at phone , fax , or service astm.

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ASTM D2487-17-Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes -Unified Soil Classification System

Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes Unified Soil Classification System 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the U. Department of Defense. Government and organo-mineral soils for engineering purposes based on Agencies adopted a modified version of the Airfield System in laboratory determination of particle-size characteristics, liquid


Unified Soil Classification System

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ASTM D2487


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