All condenser tech sheets are available for down- load on the HE! Reproduction of any portion of this standard without written permission of the Heat Exchange Institute is strictly forbidden. Tulsa, Oklahoma. General Considerations S Tubesheet Design Guidelines
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All condenser tech sheets are available for down- load on the HE! Reproduction of any portion of this standard without written permission of the Heat Exchange Institute is strictly forbidden. Tulsa, Oklahoma. General Considerations S Tubesheet Design Guidelines Condenser Tube Ends S Welding S Erection Superintendent Duties Condenser Tubes Stress Values Atmospheric Relief Valve Sizes The Eleventh Edition of"Standards for Steam Surface Condensers" has incorporated several new revisions since the Tenth Edition, such as new sample calculations for oxygen content and tubeside pressure drop, a new Section 4.
A listing of all HEI standards and condenser related technical articles is also listed on the inside cover of the standard for your convenience. Please visit the HEI website, www. The Heat Exchange Institute anticipates a continuing program to extend and amplify the coverage pre- sented in these Standards and this may require the periodic issuance of addenda to these Standards. As a result, users of these Standards should make sure that they are in possession of all such addenda by enquiry to the Heat Exchange Institute offices.
The Heat Exchange Institute solicits comments from all interested parties regarding areas where further treatment or more detailed treatment is desired or felt necessary. Contact the Institute at Sumner Ave. SHELL Circulating water velocity is the average velocity of circulating water through the tubes. Cleanliness factor is the ratio of the condenser heat transfer coefficient to the clean heat transfer 2. Hotwell capaci ty is condensate storage volume. The minimum recommended hotwell capacity is the 2.
Unless otherwise specified, condenser duty is assumed to be the quantity of 2. Condenser heat transfer coefficient is the average rate of heat transfer from the steam to circulating 2. Static pressure is the pressure of a fluid at rest.
The distribution of measurement points shall conform 2. Inlet Water Temperature. These variations, while negligible it flows around and through the tube bundle, and tube under some conditions, render the exact prediction inundation as condensate falls through the bundle.
In typical, commercial operating condenser is less than addition, terminal temperature differences of less that attainable in laboratory tests. Because second do not build up resistance sufficient to insure these values take into account parameters other than a uniform quantity of water through all the tubes; the basic heat transfer across the wall of the tube, therefore, condenser performance under such condi- they are not meant to be used by designers as specific tions cannot be exactly predicted and such predictions individual tube "U'' values.
The Heat Exchange Institute has conducted tests for the purpose of arriving at heat transfer coefficients 4. The following is the Heat racy expected in steam condensers, the effect of sea Exchange Institute's method for calculating condenser or brackish water as opposed to fresh water is com- heat transfer coefficients. Other methods of calculating paratively insignificant with respect to performance. If environmental laws require strict limitation on the This method includes an allotment for the steamside water temperature discharged from condensers to effects described above.
It is the responsibility of the natural sea water or brackish water sources, it may condenser designer to develop tube bundle and shell be necessary to allow for the effect of such waters on configurations which result in the heat transfer coef- the circulating water temperature rise through con- ficients calculated by this Standard. The Purchaser shall furnish specific weight flow or specific gravity and specific heat. A design than 70F, the basic heat transfer coefficients should cleanliness factor should be selected by the Purchaser be multiplied by the corresponding design correction that suitably reflects the probable operating condition factors shown in Figure 2 or Table 2.
Non-copper bear- ing tube materials are more susceptible to bio-fouling 4. Tube Material k 25 24 23 22 20 18 16 14 12 0. With certain conditions of stable operation and 4. The specific oxygen level in A for 7 parts per billion and Curve B for 14 parts per returning condensate and the quantity of condensate billion.
In order to determine the oxygen content of the conden- sate at different operating cases off design operating 4. The arrangement and location of all Step 1: Determine the condenser shellside pressure entrance points into the condenser for water vapor based on the circulating water inlet temperature and or other gases should be subject to the approval of condenser duty.
This information may be found by the Manufacturer. Step 8: Once this temperature is found, move vertically 4. Step 4: Move horizontally to the left to find the cor- responding pressure in inches ofHg.
Step 5: In order to achieve an oxygen content of 14 PPB the actual condenser shellside operating pressure 4. The design capacity of the venting equipment should be in accordance with Section 6. These ratios are for venting equipment rated at 1 in. HgA suction pressure and a temperature of The oxygen content values shown in Figure 3 are only valid if the provisions from Section 4.
The Heat Exchange Institute has conducted a field survey of a number of condensers for Boiling Water Reactor power plants and has reached the conclusion that condensate oxygen levels of ppb over a fairly wide range of operation are to be expected with this type of plant.
This factor increases the impor- tance of eliminating sources of noncondensible gases in the hotwell area Par. The restrictions of para- graph 4. Figure4 4. A sample performance curve is shown Factor, Table 5 Figure 4. This modification begins at Point J and proceeds as a straight line to Point G. Point J is Figures 8 and 9 cover the head losses to be expected determined from Figure 5, Curve A and is commonly in waterboxes and tube entrances and exits of single referred to as the cut-off point.
Point G is the minimum pass and two pass condensers, respectively. For single absolute pressure zero duty and is provided by Figure pass condenser, the inlet and outlet waterbox losses 5, Curve B. It The circulating water pressure loss through the con- should be noted that the tube inlet and outlet loss denser is calculated using the following equations.
Or use: Factors should be adjusted using this as a base. HgA 1. Determine the Length of the Tubes: 2 L,. Refer en ce : 1. Assumed to have one pass. The sub-cooling effects ofmultipressure designs temperature under ideal conditions, however, longer are similar to those of a single pressure design. When operating at or near full load, 4.
OoF range and perature depression. Sub-cooling represents an inef- multipressure designs can be estimated using the fol- ficient condensing process with the possibility of air lowing equations: re-absorption by the colder droplets leading to higher oxygen content in the condensate.
Both sub-cooling and Two Pressure Designs: resultant higher oxygen levels are undesireable. The distance from hotwell high water level to the bottom tubes will be recommended by the manufacture, which will allow main exhaust steam to effectively reheat the falling droplets, thereby returning their temperature as close to saturation conditions as possible.
Chapter 1. Cascading is normally accomplished Where: through the use of a loop seal that overcomes shell differential pressures. A well designed reheat system To oF Degrees of Temperature depression n no units Denotes an nth shell. Figure 8 v ID Hll! Ii I'I'I'H''!! IJ'I ' j'"l'. JH: : 11ii. RE ft. W wmm!!!!!!!!! Hiu': 'I I l. WJ ,:! Figure 9 V,.. Velocity Through Tubes ftJsec Hml W'l"'''!
H""' :rff!! I'P I1! JIH "!! IT"" "' TI"" v-m The analytical procedures should account for gradients in condens- 4. Also, there is evidence that geothermal 4. The same constituents may also create fouling films or 4. The large amounts of noncondensibles in geothermal condensers require special treatment of the noncon- Due to these complexities, the HEI is not in a posi- densible-vapor mixture.
Condensing and cooling of tion to establish design criteria for such equipment. The suction and information helpful in the selection, rating, and pressure and temperatme at the vent outlet should construction of geothermal condensers.
Use 4. Generally, 4.
Condenser Backpressure High? Check Vacuum System Sizing
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