En el enfoque de Strasberg , los actores hacen uso de las experiencias de sus propias vidas para acercarlos a la experiencia de sus personajes. Sin fingir ni forzar, los actores permiten que esas sensaciones estimulen una respuesta e intenten no inhibirse. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. Method acting reconsidered.
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Method acting is a range of training and rehearsal techniques that seek to encourage sincere and emotionally expressive performances, as formulated by a number of different theatre practitioners. These techniques are built on Stanislavski's system , developed by the Russian actor and director Konstantin Stanislavski and captured in his books An Actor Prepares , Building a Character , and Creating a Role. Among those who have contributed to the development of the Method, three teachers are associated with "having set the standard of its success", each emphasizing different aspects of the approach: Lee Strasberg the psychological aspects , Stella Adler the sociological aspects , and Sanford Meisner the behavioral aspects.
In the first three decades of the 20th century , Stanislavski organized his training, preparation, and rehearsal techniques into a coherent, systematic methodology. The "method" brought together and built on: 1 the director-centred, unified aesthetic and disciplined, ensemble approach of the Meiningen company ; 2 the actor-centred realism of the Maly ; 3 and the Naturalistic staging of Antoine and the independent theatre movement.
The "system" cultivates what Stanislavski calls the "art of experiencing" to which he contrasts the " art of representation ". As well as Stanislavski's early work, the ideas and techniques of Yevgeny Vakhtangov a Russian-Armenian student who had died in at the age of 39 were also an important influence on the development of the Method. Vakhtangov's "object exercises" were developed further by Uta Hagen as a means for actor training and the maintenance of skills.
Strasberg attributed to Vakhtangov the distinction between Stanislavski's process of "justifying" behaviour with the inner motive forces that prompt that behaviour in the character and "motivating" behaviour with imagined or recalled experiences relating to the actor and substituted for those relating to the character. Following this distinction, actors ask themselves "What would motivate me, the actor, to behave in the way the character does?
The interest generated led to a decision by Boleslavsky and Maria Ouspenskaya another student at the First Studio to emigrate to the US and to establish the American Laboratory Theatre. However, the version of Stanislavski's practice these students took to the US with them was that developed in the s, rather than the more fully elaborated version of the "system" detailed in Stanislavski's acting manuals from the s, An Actor's Work and An Actor's Work on a Role.
The first half of An Actor's Work , which treated the psychological elements of training, was published in a heavily abridged and misleadingly translated version in the US as An Actor Prepares in English-language readers often confused the first volume on psychological processes with the "system" as a whole.
Among the concepts and techniques of method acting are substitution , "as if", sense memory, affective memory , and animal work all of which were first developed by Stanislavski. Contemporary method actors sometimes seek help from psychologists in the development of their roles. In Strasberg's approach, actors make use of experiences from their own lives to bring them closer to the experience of their characters.
This technique, which Stanislavski came to call emotion memory Strasberg tends to use the alternative formulation, "affective memory" , involves the recall of sensations involved in experiences that made a significant emotional impact on the actor. Without faking or forcing, actors allow those sensations to stimulate a response and try not to inhibit themselves.
Stanislavski's approach rejected emotion memory except as a last resort and prioritised physical action as an indirect pathway to emotional expression. In training, as distinct from rehearsal process, the recall of sensations to provoke emotional experience and the development of a vividly imagined fictional experience remained a central part both of Stanislavski's and the various Method-based approaches that developed out of it.
A widespread misconception about method acting—particularly in the popular media—equates method actors with actors who choose to remain in character even offstage or off-camera for the duration of a project. Her version of the method is based on the idea that actors should stimulate emotional experience by imagining the scene's "given circumstances", rather than recalling experiences from their own lives.
Adler's approach also seeks to stimulate the actor's imagination through the use of "as ifs", which substitute more personally affecting imagined situations for the circumstances experienced by the character.
The charge that Strasberg's method distorted Stanislavski's system has been responsible for a considerable revivalist interest in Stanislavski's "pure" teachings. As the use of the Method has declined considerably from its peak in the midth century, acting teachers claiming to teach Stanislavski's unadulterated system are becoming more numerous. Alfred Hitchcock described his work with Montgomery Clift in I Confess as difficult "because you know, he was a method actor".
He recalled similar problems with Paul Newman in Torn Curtain. How would you portray death if you had to experience it first? During the filming of Marathon Man , Laurence Olivier , who had lost patience with method acting two decades earlier while filming The Prince and the Showgirl , was said to have quipped to Dustin Hoffman, after Hoffman stayed up all night to match his character's situation, that Hoffman should "try acting It's so much easier.
There are claims in Indian media that in Indian cinema , a form of method acting was developed independently from American cinema.
Dilip Kumar , a Hindi cinema actor who debuted in the s and eventually became one of the biggest Indian movie stars of the s and s, was a pioneer of method acting, predating Hollywood method actors such as Marlon Brando.
When the felt emotions of a played character are not compartmentalized, they can encroach on other facets of life, often seeming to disrupt the actor's psyche. This occurs as the actor delves into previous emotional experiences, be they joyful or traumatic.
Fatigue, or emotional fatigue, comes mainly when actors "create dissonance between their actions and their actual feelings". Method acting, when employed correctly, is mainly deep acting, or changing thoughts as well as actions, proven to generally avoid excessive fatigue.
Surface acting is statistically "positively associated with a negative mood and this explains some of the association of surface acting with increased emotional exhaustion". Raw emotion unresolved emotions conjured up for acting may result in a sleep deprivation and the cyclical nature of the ensuing side effects. Sleep deprivation alone can lead to impaired function, causing some individuals to have "acute episodes of psychosis".
Sleep deprivation initiates chemical changes in the brain that can lead to behavior similar to psychotic individuals. In cases where raw emotion that has not been resolved, or traumas have been evoked before closure has been reached by the individual, the emotion can result in greater emotional instability and increased sense of anxiety, fear or shame.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Training and rehearsal techniques. For the song, see Method Acting song. Main article: Stanislavski's system. The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Psychological effects of method acting. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness.
You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. Stanislavski's " art of representation " corresponds to Mikhail Shchepkin 's "actor of reason" and his "art of experiencing" corresponds to Shchepkin's "actor of feeling"; see Benedetti a, The term " Method of Physical Action " was applied to this rehearsal process after Stanislavski's death.
Benedetti indicates that though Stanislavski had developed it since , he first explored it practically in the early s; see , and a, , Gordon argues the shift in working-method happened during the s , 49— Vasili Toporkov, an actor who trained under Stanislavski in this approach, provides in his Stanislavski in Rehearsal a detailed account of the Method of Physical Action at work in Stanislavski's rehearsals.
Stanislavski continues: "For in the process of action the actor gradually obtains the mastery over the inner incentives of the actions of the character he is representing, evoking in himself the emotions and thoughts which resulted in those actions. In such a case, an actor not only understands his part, but also feels it, and that is the most important thing in creative work on the stage"; quoted by Magarshack , He would disguise himself as a tramp or drunk and visit the railway station, or as a fortune-telling gypsy.
As Benedetti explains, however, Stanislavski soon abandoned the technique of maintaining a characterisation in real life; it does not form a part of his "system".
The Times. The American actor Dustin Hoffman, playing a victim of imprisonment and torture in the film The Marathon Man, prepared himself for his role by keeping himself awake for two days and nights. He arrived at the studio disheveled and drawn to be met by his co-star, Laurence Olivier. Laurence Kerr Olivier. Retrieved 13 January Dilip Kumar: The Substance and the Shadow. Hay House. The Hindu. Archived from the original on 8 February Retrieved 9 January A Multi-level, Experience-sampling Study.
Archived from the original on 3 December Retrieved 30 January Retrieved 12 April Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 2 April Archived from the original on 18 December The Guardian. Retrieved 30 January — via www. November 11, The Independent. Vanity Fair. Retrieved 30 January — via LA Times. October 12, Archived from the original on 5 August Washington Post.
Press of Mississippi — via Google Books. January 26, Irish Independent. Archived from the original on Retrieved November 14, Times of India Blog. November 15, September 3, Brian Timoney Acting. Retrieved 9 May
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